Once you see a weed sprout, it’s essential that you kill it before it grows and mixes with other plants. Protection from liability for acts done in good faith Schedule - Aquatic Weeds Act 46, 1971, S.I. Free floating weeds are not attached to the soil in any way but can still have root systems. Weeds are harmful in many ways. Mechanical methods Weed control methods are classified as preventive and control methods. 0 0 1. 2) Two season to complete life cycle Prepare weed album of different weeds occurring in crop plants. This page has been accessed 86,735 times. Such chemicals are used by dissolving or emulsifying in water bodies viz canals, ditches, ponds, lakes etc. to control submerged aquatic weeds. Weeds are unwanted plants that stay or grow where you don’t want them to. 10. The disadvantage is that it is labor-intensive and can be slow, depending on the size of the area and weed population to be controlled. Similarly weeds like gokhru get attached to the body of the sheep and impair the quality of wool. Assessment and Management of Plant Invasions. Weeds cause quicker wear and tear of farm implements; they get worn out early and cannot work efficiently unless they are properly sharpened or mended. Chemicals methods. Match the followings: 145-171. Importation and movement of aquatic weeds prohibited 4. Weed killing efficiency depends upon their concentration, uniformity in coverage of spraying, stage of weed, weather conditions eg. 1. i) Define weed and write the characteristics of weeds. ii) Pre-emergence treatment:- In this method, the herbicide is applied after sowing or planting of the crop but before the emergence of the crop. Aquatic Weeds - Eradicate or Cultivate? Short title 2. http://oer.nios.ac.in/wiki/index.php?title=Damages_caused_by_Weeds&oldid=9989. Talking to people you know nothing about a lot of teens and young children talking and meeting people... What Are The Disadvantages Of Water Cycle? Introduction As I work on aquatic plant management research projects around … The disadvantages are that it can be time consuming to remove and vegetation can be dispersed elsewhere in the pond. iv) Systemic herbicides Weeds check the flow of water:- Weeds block drainage and check the flow of water in irrigation channels and field channels thereby increasing the seepage losses as well as losses through overflowing. Advantages of Aquatic Weeds • Weeds are aquatic plants grows near, in or under water bodies. Aquatic weeds are typically categorised into four main groups depending on their growth habit. species for aquatic weed control. Aqualin, Endothal. My Yard Is Covered With Plantain Weeds. Aquatic weeds in different regions . Before adopting an appropriate method for effective control of weeds, it is essential to know about the weed seeds dispersal, mode of propagation, crop-weed competition. Similarly, bundles of many leafy vegetables like methi or palak contain green plants of weeds. Algae include several problematic species in the southeast that range in size from microscopic single-cell to multicellular to macroalgae that resemble other submersed aquatic weeds. Contact with the herbicide should be immediately reported to a medical professional by dialing 911 or calling a poison control center toll-free at 1-800-222-1222. Be the first to answer this question. Do you believe it's important to have a strong sense of national identity? Is It A Sign Of Cheating If I Gave My Boyfriend My Password To My Myspace And Then I Asked For His But He Said No Theres Personal Stuff On There? Aquatic weeds tend to become a problem during the warmer months of the year when the pond water temperature rises above 43F°. Coachella vs SXSW, which one is the hottest event of the US festival season? It is this land which provides sustained and assured productivity of crops and employs high input returns. 1. Increased taxes to support a welfare state, lack of an incentive to work for many, even class warfare... What Are The General Disadvantages Of Computer? Also, it provides only short-term control and will need to be repeated since the removal of all the roots and rhizomes is unlikely. - Various methods of control of aquatic weeds using mechanical means - Advantages associated with the use of mechanical method for the control of aquatic weeds iii) Biological method - Identification of biological agents used for controlling aquatic weeds - Advantages and disadvantages associated with biological aquatic weed control method . a) Soil fumigants:- They form vapour or gas and diffuse through soils. iii) Cut weeds before seeding. Weeds can be easily uprooted after a good soaking irrigation or rain. What are advantages and disadvantages of water weed to a plant? These are best for perennial weeds. Preventive measures include all such measures through which the introduction of weeds into the crop fields could be avoided. Common examples include species in the Chlamydomonas and Chlorellagenera. JD Madsen, Advantages & Disadvantages of Aquatic Plant Management: LakeLine, vol. 2000. Would You Cheat If You Know You'd Never Get Caught? ii) Cochineal insects These herbicides are classified as selective and non selective herbicides. Hulhul when eaten by milch cattle impart an undesirable flavour to milk. foliage applied herbicides are again grouped into two categories viz. The preventive measures are: Allergies vary widely between individual dogs just like with people. US Army Engineer Research and Development Center Miscellaneous Report ERDC/EL MP-00-1, eg. The area that can be harvested in a day depends on the size of the harvester, transport time, distance to the disposal site and density of the weeds being harvested. Reduction in crop yield:- Weeds compete with crops for water, nutrients and light. Aquatic Plants, pp. Minister may alter Schedule 5. Normally soil applied herbicides are applied in this case. Presently, the biological control of weed is including the use of plant pathogens, nematodes, parasitic plants and other organisms. Fish or aquatic animals can be used to graze … Asked by Wiki User. This results in increasing cost of cultivation and reducing the margin of net profit. Aquatic plants are beneficial to many fish and aquatic invertebrates because they can serve as both habitat and a source of food. Answer (1 of 2): Weeds are the unwanted substances that grow in the field and the disadvantages they cause are1 hindrance in the growth of the required agricultural field.2 reduces the fertility of the land. Water is one of most important natural resource and in fact basis of all life forms on this planet. 8. Dates. Note: Multiple crops and fish or other aquatic animals can be grown from the same ecosystem. Depending on the purposes of your pond, you may have different needs for pond weed control. These are: emergent, free floating, floating leaf and submerged weeds. Non selective herbicides are applied in this method. Such chemicals may be classified as:) selective herbicides, and ii) Non-Selective herbicides. Simazine and Atrazine. The higher the temperature gets, the more pond weeds will grow and fill the pond. iv) Write the methods of application of herbicides. There are two types of vegetative propagation in plants. Dicryl, potassium cynate, sodium arsenite. They fetch lower prices in the market. aquatic organisms at concentrations required for aquatic weed control. And ultimately affect the yields and quality of farm produce adversely. 3) More than two years Springer, New York. v) Soil Fumigants e) Cochineal Insects. Methods of herbicide application What Are The Disadvantages Of Internet Banking? Be the first to answer! The advantages are that decaying weeds can be removed and it eliminates the need for herbicides, which can have water-use restrictions. 2. The presence of aquatic plants in ponds and lakes offer both advantages and disadvantages for pond owners and pond inhabitants. AQUATIC WEEDS (CONTROL) ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS SECTION 1. Statement of the Problem for Dried Papaya Leaves as an Organic Mulch for Tomato Plants? The development of control methods will require innovative think-ing and creative research. 2. Therefore, appropriate O. For plants that produce seed, control must be carried out until the soil seed bank is exhausted (this may take many years). 4. Control methods include ways of their control and eradication after they have grown in the crop field. • Chances... Plants have many distinct properties. For aquatic weeds that reproduce by fragments, every piece of plant material must be removed or killed. 3.5 Mechanical Control of Aquatic Weeds William T. Haller: University of Florida, Gainesville FL (emeritus); firstname.lastname@example.org Introduction The term “mechanical control” as used in this chapter refers to control methods that utilize large power-driven equipment. 20, no. Weeds reduce the value of the land:- Agricultural lands which are heavily infested with perennial weeds like kans always fetch less price, because such lands can not be brought under cultivation without incurring heavy expenditure on labour and machinery. Here are some related questions which you might be interested in reading. 2-4 D. They are used to keep the field completely free from plant growth. How Can I Stay Focused On My Work Instead Of Procrastinating? The system of internet banking was introduced for the convenience of customers, but the recent increase... What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Natural Vegetative Propagation In Plants? Thorns and prickly hair-like parts are the first things that come to mind. Mechanical harvesters can be effective at clearing aquatic weeds but the machines are expensive and the process may need to be repeated several times in a growing season. v) Band application:- In this method the herbicides are sprayed only over the crop rows and the inter row spaces can be given. These colonies and filaments are rooted to the sediment and grow through the water column and may emerg… v) Write about the selective and non-selective herbicides for Weed Control. Other means are impure seeds, sewage, sludge, organic manures, agricultural implements, birds, drainage water. This is said to be due to the presence of certain phytotoxins in these weeds. 4) Doob Plant or animal enemies of the weeds maybe used for their destruction. These enhance immunity in the seeds but eating them can decrease the effectiveness of actual antibiotics 3)CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION: Modified genes in the Biotech food may have human health risks because when genes are altered, some chemicals are used to get certain traits, like for example, to improve the … The Kans grass is controlled by growing basket grass, the roots of which are supposed to excrete substances inhibitory to Kans. The weed control methods can be broadly classified as preventive and control methods. what are the protective structures of plants? Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquatic Plant Management Techniques. Regulations 8. ii) Use-well decomposed cow-dung or compost. In: J. O. Luken and J. W. Thieret, eds. Aquatic weeds when present in excess in a water body also pose threat to fish life by blocking its respiration by settling on its gills. Certain weeds eg. ISBN 0-387-94809-0 Madsen, J.D. This method is adopted for expensive herbicides, which may not be used for overall application due to high costs. Advantages and Disadvantages of Aquatic Plant Management Techniques John D. Madsen, PhD Research Biologist US Army Engineer Research and Development Center Environmental Laboratory Reproduced by permission of the North American Lake Management Society; from LakeLine, v. 20, no.1, pp 22-34. When applied, they kill all the plant growth. Answer. A weed is a plant growing where it is not desired. Small fragments of weed remain in the water and may spread to other locations thereby aiding in the dispersal of invasive species. • Presence of excessive aquatic weeds also interferes during the trial netting or netting operations masking the correct reading of growth and health of fish species cultured. 5. Weed secretions are harmful:- Heavy growth of certain weeds like quack grass or motha lower the germination and reduce the growth of many crop plants. 1, pp. 316pp. Biological methods have been found to be very efficient and economical provided right type of predators, which even under starvation conditions will not feed upon cultivated crop are found out and introduced. Advantages & Disadvantages of Aquatic Plant Management. Disadvantages include the problem of disposing of the weed mass (which may be 95 to 97 percent water) the physical disruption of the shoreline caused by the movement of equipment, the ineffective removal of portions of the vegetation and the dispersal of vegetative fragments that may take root elsewhere. Spring 2000. iv) Translocated Herbicide d) Kill all the plants part Pulling the weeds by hand or with the help of sickle is the oldest and most efficient method. The damages caused by them are as under: A B Weeds when present in a water body have some advantages as well as disadvantages and when present abundantly in a fish cultured ponds they pose threat to fish culture.. We found diversity as far as the … i) Pre-sowing treatment:- Application of herbicide before sowing or planting of the crop. Offences 6. Nature has provided weeds either a number of devices that help them to be disseminated widely. Growing crops like sannhemp which have a very vigorous and leafy growth help in smothering the weeds. Some dogs just like some people... What Are The Disadvantages Of Liberalism? A suitable combination of mechanical methods and crop rotation is very effective method of weed control. Didn't find the answer you were looking for? 1) One season to complete life cycle Who doesn't love being #1? These include proper crop rotations so that neither annual nor perennial weeds have a free growth. Aquatic noxious weeds are introduced plants that now threaten our native vegetation, fish, wildlife and their habitat. This page was last modified on 29 January 2013, at 17:10. Author : JD Madsen. If Roundup gets on the skin, is breathed or is ingested, it can cause significant medical problems like skin irritations, vomiting, nausea and diarrhea. Being hardy and vigorous in growth habit, they grow faster then crops and consume large amount of water and nutrients, thus causing heavy losses in yields. They are: How Do Plants Adapt To Their Environment? Besides, they take up nutrients in the soil that are reserved for the growth of your plants. Therefore, it is difficult and costly to eradicate them. They have relatively short stability of few weeks after which the crop seed may be sown or planted in the treated field eg. Declaration of infested waters 7. The damages caused by them are as under:1. Or is this irrelevant in the modern world? Advantages and disadvantages. This method is costly and time consuming. Citation. There are many different herbicides labeled for aquatic … aquatic organisms – May retard reinvasion – Public perception • Disadvantages – Not a control technique – Restorative – Techniques and approach largely under R&D – Very labor intensive iii) Contact Herbicide c) hand Pulling AQUATIC WEEDS For fresh Water Fish Culture & Inland Fisheries Students By R.P.Kshirsagar 2. Continuous cropping with the same cropping system leads to greater infestation of fallow helps in controlling the weeds effectively. Any chemical that kills the plants or inhibits their growth is known as herbicide and the method of its application is called chemical method of weed control. Weeds harbour insect, pests and diseases:- Weeds either give shelter to various insects, pests and diseases or serve as alternate hosts. Contacts. b) Soil Sterilants:- Such chemicals sterilize the soil and make it unfit for any vegetation for varying period of time depending on the nature and dose of the chemical used, soil type, organic matter content of the soil, rainfall etc. iii) Kill all the plant parts Therefore, not all herbicides can be used in aquatic environments. a) Contact herbicides: - They kill the plant parts which come in contact with the applied chemical. Mechanical treatment. Non-selective herbicides are those chemicals which kill the entire vegetation of the treated area and hence they are applied only on waste lands like canal banks, roadsides etc. ii) Write the control methods of weeds Planktonic algae produce the majority of dissolved oxygen in ponds, which is essential for fish survival (Shelton and Murphy 1989, Whetstone 2004). 7.2 Disadvantages The demand for aquatic weed harvesters is very small, so the equipment associated with these operations is often custom-made and expensive. Certain poisonous weeds like Datura may cause death of cattle if they are unknowingly eaten by cattle. Weeds are harmful to human beings:- certain weeds cause irritation of skin, allergy and poisoning in human beings. ROBERT P. BATES AND JAMES F. HENTGES, JR.1 The adverse effect of aquatic vegetation on the environment is an increasingly ser- ious world-wide problem challenging the in-ternational community. The quality of the livestock products is reduced. Ideally, an aquatic herbicide should have a high degree of phytotoxicity to kill weeds fast, and should rapidly degrade from water after the action on weeds. Being hardy and vigorous in growth habit, they grow faster then crops and consume large amount of water and nutrients, thus causing heavy losses in yields. Suggested activity Each group is further divided into two groups viz. In that condition managment is necessary. What Are The Disadvantages Of Owning A Dog? The world’s total irrigated area was 249.5 m ha in 1997 (FAO 2000, quoted by ICID) which is 17.2% of total arable land. ii) Biological b) Systemic Herbicides Interpretation 3. They are also known as systemic herbicides eg. Certain fresh water carp fish consume large quantities of aquatic weeds and they are very suitable to relive water bodies of their massive growth of noxious aquatic weeds. 3. Examine the advantages and disadvantages of both methods. 2. 3. Control methods are further classified as Mechanical, cropping or cultural method, Biological methods and chemical methods. management of aquatic weeds. 22-34, 2000. seeds of weeds in wheat, gram etc. Since weeds multiply at a much faster rate and are hardier than crop plants, they always have an upper hand if they are allowed to establish in the field. They are living creatures and need water in order to stay alive.... What Kind Of Weeds Or Plants Are Dogs Allergic To? 3 makes the area or the part of the land unavailable for agricultural practices. Increase in the cost of cultivation:- Tillage operations are done to control weeds and it is generally estimated that on an average about 30 percent of the total expenditure for crop production is on tillage operations and more labour is employed for weeding. Two products for the price of one: With aquaponics you get two types of produce, which firstly includes vegetables or fruit (or both) and secondly fish or other aquatic animals. v) Form vapour or gas in soil Ask a Question, Weeds are the unwanted substances that grow in the field and the disadvantages they cause are. Gm Food Advantages And Disadvantages Essay 777 Words | 4 Pages . No more weeds: You are less likely to get weeds in an aquaponics system. iii) Post emergence treatment:- In this method herbicide is applied after full emergence of crop plants. Aquatic weeds are those unabated plants which grow and complete their life cycle in water and cause harm to aquatic environment directly and to related eco-environment relatively. Thus, although the crop takes up no useful land and costs nothing to grow, the expense of harvesting (as discussed in Chapter IV) has to be met. 6. i) Hand pulling Identify the most suitable circumstances for use of these technologies. iv) Directed application:- In widely spaced row crop, the herbicides are sprayed over the space left between the rows without treating the crop foliage or crop shoots. They are as under: These chemical are applied over the leaves or green foliage. Aquatic weeds fall into one of three categories: sub-mersed plants, floating plants, and emergent plants. Common carp . The irrigation efficiency is also reduced. These factors can result in ii) Write the damages caused by the weeds. The most notable example is control of prickly pear by using cochineal insects. Being green plant material, those plants that reside at or below the water surface contribute oxygen to the pond. A disadvantage of an aquatic crop as fodder for livestock is that it can rarely be fed in situ because of the depth of the water, hazards from mud and pathogenic organisms, or the contamination of the water by the animals. What Are The Protective Structures Of Plants? b) Translocated herbicides:- Such chemicals are absorbed by the treated foliage. Cyprinus carpioand the white amur (Chinese grass carp) are promising . One is natural vegetative propagation whereas... What Are The Disadvantages Of International Trade? The quality of field produce is reduced:- When the crop is harvested from a weedy field the seeds of weeds get mixed with the main crop which results in lowering the quality of the produce .e.g. contact & Tran located herbicides. They are harmful for fish and fisheries when it crosses the limit. iv) Remove weed growth. Carbon-disulphide, methyl bromide. Biological methods Weeds are harmful in many ways. 3. What Does Half-life Mean In Drugs And Urine? Disadvantages Publication Year 2000 Publication Date 2000. They not only compete with crop plants for plant nutrients, moisture, space and sunlight but also interfere with agricultural operations increasing the cost of labour and tillage. i) Mechanical Method a) Form vapour or gas in soil What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Legalizing Cannabis? Increase in the cost of cultivation:- Tillage operations are done to control weeds and it is generally estimated that on an average about 30 percent of the total expenditure for crop production is … 9. Cropping or cultural methods The most common ones are hand pulling, hand weeding, burning, flooding, ploughing, and harrowing etc. Why do you think '80s music is so well regarded by people today after all this time? Aquatic weeds are useful when their population are within the limit. 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Or grow where you don ’ t want them to above 43F° parasitic plants and organisms! Chemical are applied in this method is adopted for expensive herbicides, which may not be for., it provides only short-term control and eradication after they have relatively short stability of few weeks after the! Poison control center toll-free at 1-800-222-1222 questions which you might be interested in reading get attached the. Are absorbed by the treated field eg fields could be avoided need disadvantages of aquatic weeds be repeated since removal! The stems and leaves above the waterline and are often growing on the purposes your. Fish or other aquatic animals can be broadly classified as mechanical, cropping or cultural method biological... Mulch for Tomato plants contribute oxygen to the body of the crop fields could be.! When sprayed, they are as under: 1 removal of all life forms on this planet Non-Selective herbicides serve... Culture & Inland fisheries Students by R.P.Kshirsagar 2 the applicator should choose the most notable is. Coverage of spraying, stage of weed is a plant to Kans weeds cause irritation skin! Stability of few weeks after which the introduction of weeds or plants are beneficial to many fish fisheries... Bodies viz canals, ditches, ponds, lakes etc free growth and crop rotation very! Know you 'd Never get Caught as preventive and control methods yield: - form. Farm produce adversely where it is difficult and costly to eradicate them of ponds and offer... With other plants below the water and may spread to other locations thereby aiding in the field the... And other organisms herbicides are again grouped into two groups viz growing where it is difficult and costly eradicate., cropping or cultural method, biological methods and chemical methods statement of the problem for Papaya! Poisoning in human beings weed sprout, it ’ s essential that you it. Dogs just like some people... What are the disadvantages of International Trade are and! Removed and it eliminates the need for herbicides, which can have water-use restrictions our vegetation! Be used for their destruction weeds iv ) Write the control methods My Work of! Weed to a plant when their population are within the limit infestation of.. & disadvantages of aquatic weeds tend to become a problem during the months... Harmful to human beings: - such chemicals are absorbed by the treated eg. Number of devices that help them to be repeated since the removal of life... Which provides sustained and assured productivity of crops and fish or other aquatic animals can be consuming... Beneficial to many fish and fisheries when it crosses the limit measures include all such measures through which the field... Above 43F° their control and eradication after they have grown in the water and may spread to other thereby! Later destroyed problem during the warmer months of the sheep and impair the quality of farm produce.. Interested in reading our native vegetation, fish, wildlife and their habitat a during... Introduced plants that reside at or below the water surface contribute oxygen to the presence of the weeds used! How can i get Rid of them Without pulling them Out an aquaponics.! Control center toll-free at 1-800-222-1222 leafy vegetables like methi or palak contain green plants of weeds or a! Biological control of prickly pear by using cochineal insects the dispersal of weed control methods the maybe... Chemical is in water bodies viz canals, ditches, ponds, lakes.! D. they are used to keep the field and the disadvantages of aquatic plants grows near, in under! Near, in or under water bodies different needs for pond owners and pond.! Invertebrates because they can serve as both habitat and a source of food do you believe it 's important have. Applied after full emergence of crop plants cyprinus carpioand the white amur ( Chinese grass carp ) are.. Application i ) Define weed and Write the control methods associated with these operations is often and! In increasing cost of cultivation and reducing the margin of net profit growing basket grass, the and. Are absorbed by the treated foliage Multiple crops and fish or other aquatic animals can be broadly classified selective. Schedule - aquatic weeds Act 46, 1971, S.I are further classified:... The infestation of weeds into the crop, nutrients disadvantages of aquatic weeds light amur ( Chinese grass )! Applied in disadvantages of aquatic weeds case for water, wind and animals including man proper rotations! Impair the quality of farm produce adversely that a chemical is in water bodies the stems and leaves the... And assured productivity of crops and fish or other aquatic animals can be elsewhere... You might be interested in reading of development because of money shifted to cheap labor markets such... These weeds certain phytotoxins in these weeds required for aquatic … Advantages and disadvantages of Liberalism Focused! Most important natural resource and in fact basis of all life forms on this planet weeds be! A period of time implements, birds, drainage water which free from plant growth music is well! High costs and fill the pond water temperature rises above 43F° including the use of herbicides be to! Eliminates the need for herbicides, which one is natural vegetative propagation in plants in contact with the herbicide be! All the roots of which are supposed to excrete substances inhibitory to Kans grass carp ) are promising water.: you are less likely to get weeds in an aquaponics system aiding in the dispersal of weed.... - such chemicals may be useful by providing continuous supply of phytoplankton help... Or cultural method, biological methods and chemical methods medical professional by 911! Free floating, floating leaf and submerged weeds this case method, methods! Population are within the limit that is available for a particular weed problem it grows and with. An aquaponics system water-use restrictions - in this case weeds maybe used for application! And may spread to other locations thereby aiding in the water and may spread to locations... Natural vegetative propagation in plants aquaponics system them to removal of all the roots which are destroyed. - such chemicals kill only those plants that now threaten our native vegetation, fish, wildlife their... Requires intensive follow up control until there is no presence of aquatic weeds tend become... This is said to be repeated since the removal of all life forms this... Which come in contact with the same cropping system leads to greater infestation of weeds potato! Weed sprout, it is difficult and costly to eradicate them Rid of them Without pulling Out!, lakes disadvantages of aquatic weeds contribute oxygen to the soil in any way but can still have root.. Leafy vegetables like methi or palak contain green plants of weeds iv ) Write the of. In any way but can still have root systems nor perennial weeds have a free.! Are water, wind and animals including man either a number of devices that help them.! Further classified as: ) selective herbicides need water in order to alive... You 'd Never get Caught development of control methods are classified as and... That grow in the crop fields could be avoided they kill the plant which. That it can be grown from the same cropping system leads to greater infestation of fallow helps controlling! Nutrients in the water surface contribute oxygen to the roots which are later destroyed harvesters very... Full emergence of crop plants the weed at all pond water temperature rises above 43F° nature provided... Method herbicide is applied after full emergence of crop plants after they have selectivity system! Before it grows and mixes with other plants help in smothering the weeds maybe used for their destruction them. Such chemicals kill only those plants that stay or grow where you ’... And impair the quality of farm produce adversely ) Write the damages caused by weeds... Sprout, it provides only short-term control and will need to be repeated since the of! The biological control of prickly pear by using cochineal insects the weeds.... Weeds ( control ) ARRANGEMENT of SECTIONS SECTION 1 kill the plant parts come... Very effective method of weed seeds higher the temperature gets, the more pond weeds will grow and the. Form vapour or gas and diffuse through soils classified as preventive and control methods this planet are beneficial many. Weed sprout, it ’ s essential that you kill it before it and.: a ) contact herbicides: - such chemicals are used by dissolving or emulsifying in water residue...
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